History of Modern Computers

1945-Present

    The evolution of modern computers is divided into a few "distinct" generations.  Each generation is characterized by extreme improvements over the prior era in the technology used in the manufacturing process, the internal  layout of computer systems, and programming languages.  There has also been a steady improvement in algorithms, including algorithms used in computational science, though not usually associated with computer generations.  The following timeline has been organized using a logical breakdown of events and discoveries.

First Generation of Modern Computers

Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC)

Second Generation Computers

Transistors

Third Generation Computers

Integrated Circuit

 

 

Fourth Generation Computers

Intel's 8008 Microprocessor

Bibliography

Gersting, Judith L.  The Computer: History, Workings,Uses & Limitations.  New York :

Ardsley House, c1988

Goldstine, Herman Heine.  The Computer from Pascal to von Neumann.  Princeton, NJ:

Princeton University Press 1972.

Stern, Nancy B.  From ENIAC to UNIVAC : Appraisal of the Eckert-Mauchly Computer.

            Bedford, MA: Digital Press, c1981.

http://www.computerhistory.org/timeline.

http://inventors.about.com/science/inventors/library/blcoindex.htm.

http://www.dg.com/about/html/generations.html.

http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~kguinee/Thesis/Computer.html.

http://www.computerhistory.org/timeline/.