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Grand Jury Officers (Foreperson)

Grand Jury Officers gif

Common law grand juries had a foreman, who administered the oath to witnesses testifying before the grand jury, saw that it received other kinds of evidence and generally ran the grand jury's sessions. Federal grand juries have a "foreperson" and a "deputy foreperson." The deputy takes over when the foreperson cannot attend a grand jury session.
Forty-nine states and the District of Columbia also retain the office of grand jury foreman ("foreperson), but three states--Idaho, Kansas and Wyoming--use the term "presiding juror" rather than foreperson. Connecticut does not need the office grand jury foreperson because it eliminated grand juries composed of citizens and replaced the civilian grand jury with a grand jury that is composed of one judges, who presumably do not need a foreperson to run their affairs.
Of the 50 jurisdictions that have a foreperson/presiding juror, 24 give this officer a deputy. Five states add another officer: In Florida, North Dakota, Oregon and South Dakota, this person is known as the grand jury's clerk; in Nevada he/she is the grand jury's secretary. Federal law does not recognize either position, but grand juries in some federal do choose a secretary, out of local custom.

FP - the state's grand juries have a foreman or foreperson
DF - they also have a deputy foreman or deputy foreperson
PJ - the grand juries are run by a presiding juror
DPJ - they also have a deputy presiding juror
CL - the grand juries have a clerk
SY - the grand juries have a secretary

The last entry for each state is a citation to the statute or court rule that creates the positions at issue.

State and Source of Information

Officers

ALABAMA: CRIMINAL PROCEDURE RULE 12.5(a) FP & DF
ALASKA: CRIMINAL PROCEDURE RULE 6(h) FP & DF
ARIZONA:  RULES OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE 12.4(a) FP & DF
ARKANSAS: CODE 16-85-501(a)-(b) FP & CL
CALIFORNIA: PENAL CODE 912 & 916.1 FP & DF
COLORADO:  REVISED STATUTES ANNOTATED 13-72-104 FP & DF
CONNECTICUT: GENERAL STATUTES ANNOTATED 54-47(b)(3) Not Applicable
DELAWARE: SUPERIOR COURT CRIMINAL RULES 6(c) FP & DF
D.C.: SUPERIOR COURT RULES OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE 6(c) FP & DF
FLORIDA: STATUTES ANNOTATED 905.08 & 905.13 FP, DF & CL
GEORGIA: CODE ANNOTATED 15-12-67(a) & 15-12-100(b) FP
HAWAII: RULES OF PENAL PROCEDURE 6(c) FP & DF
IDAHO: RULES OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE 6(a) PJ & DPJ
ILLINOIS:  REVISED STATUTES ch. 705 & 305/17 FP
INDIANA:  CODE ANNOTATED 35-34-2-3(d) FP & CL
IOWA: RULES OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE 3(4)(a) FP
KANSAS:  STATUTES ANNOTATED 22-3004 PJ & DPJ
KENTUCKY: REVISED STATUTES ANNOTATED 29a.250 & RULES OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE 5.04 FP
LOUISIANA: CODE CRIMNAL PROCEDURE ANNOTATED 413(b)-(c) FP
MAINE: RULES OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE 6(c) FP & DF
MARYLAND:  CODE ANNOTATED, CTS. & JUD. PROCEDURE 9-118(b) FP
MASSACHUSETTS: RULES OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE 5(b) FP
MICHIGAN:  COMPILED LAWS ANNOTATED 767.11 & 767.12 FP
MINNESOTA: STATUTES 628.56& 628.57 FP & CL
MISSISSIPPI: CODE ANNOTATED 13-5-45 & UNIFORM RULES CIR. & CTY. CT. 7.02 15-20
MISSOURI:  ANNOTATED STATUTES 540.090 FP
MONTANA: CODE ANNOTATED 46-11-303 FP
NEBRASKA: REVISED STATUTES 29-1403 FP
NEVADA: REVISED STATUTES 172.075 FP, DF & SY
NEW HAMPSHIRE: REVISED STATUTES ANNOTATED 600:4 & 600:5 FP & CL
NEW JERSEY: RULES OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE 3:6-4 & STATUTES ANNOTATED 2a:73-3 FP & DF
NEW MEXICO: STATUTES ANNOTATED 31-6-2 FP
NEW YORK: CRIMINAL PROCEDURE LAW 190.20(3) (McKinney 1995) FP, DF & SY
NORTH CAROLINA: GENERAL STATUTES 15a-622 FP
NORTH DAKOTA: CENT. CODE 29-10.1-11 & 29-10.1-15 FP, DF & CL
OHIO: RULES OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE 6(c) & REVISED CODE ANNOTATED 2939.02 FP
OKLAHOMA:  STATUTES ANNOTATED tit. 22 323 & 328 FP & CL
OREGON: REVISED STATUTES 132.050 & 132.080 FP, DF & CL
PENNSYLVANIA:  RULES OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE 253(g)& CONS. STATUTES ANNOTATED 4545(c) FP & SY
RHODE ISLAND: SUPERIOR RULES OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE 6(a) FP & DF
SOUTH CAROLINA: CODE ANNOTATED 14-7-1580 & 14-7-1670 FP & DF
SOUTH DAKOTA: CODIFIED LAWS 23a-5-6 FP, DF & CL
TENNESSEE:  RULES OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE 6(g) FP
TEXAS: CRIMINAL PROCEDURE CODE ART. 19.34 FP
UTAH: CODE ANNOTATED 77-10a-11(1) FP & DF
VERMONT: RULES OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE 6(c) FP & DF
VIRGINIA: CODE ANNOTATED 19.2-197 & 19.2.207 FP
WASHINGTON: REVISED CODE ANNOTATED 10.27.070(1) FP & DF
WEST VIRGINIA: RULES OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE RULE 6(c) FP & DF
WISCONSIN: STATUTES ANNOTATED 756.12 FP & CL
WYOMING: RULES OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE 6(a)(7)(a) PJ & DPJ

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