[Due to the extended special nature of this section in the CCC, it is being treated separately
2599 The Son of God who became Son of the Virgin learned to pray in his human heart.
He learns to pray from his mother, who kept all the great things the Almighty had done and
treasured them in her heart. (Lk 1:49; 2:19; 2:51) He learns to pray in the words and rhythms of the prayer
of his people, in the synagogue at Nazareth and the Temple at Jerusalem. But his prayer springs
from an otherwise secret source, as he intimates at the age of twelve: "I must be in my Father's house."
(Lk 2:49) Here the newness of prayer in the fullness of time begins to be revealed: his filial
prayer, which the Father awaits from his children, is finally going to be lived out by the only Son in his
humanity, with and for men.
2617 Mary's prayer is revealed to us at the dawning of the fullness of time. Before
the incarnation of the Son of God, and before the outpouring of the Holy Spirit, her prayer
cooperatesin a unique way with the Father's plan of loving kindness: at the Annunciation, for Christ's
conception; at Pentecost, for the formation of the Church, his Body. (cf. Lk 1:38; Acts 1:14) In the faith of
his humble handmaid, the Gift of God found the acceptance he had awaited from the beginning of
time. She whom the Almighty made "full of grace" responds by offering her whole being: "Behold I
am the handmaid of the Lord; let it be [done] to me according to your word." "Fiat" this is Christian
prayer: to be wholly God's, because he is wholly ours.
2618 The Gospel reveals to us how Mary prays and intercedes in faith. At Cana, (cf.
Jn 2:1-12) the mother of Jesus asks her son for the needs of a wedding feast; this is the sign of
another feast that of the wedding of the Lamb where he gives his body and blood at the request
of the Church, his Bride. It is at the hour of the New Covenant, at the foot of the cross, (cf. Jn
19:25-27) that Mary is heard as the Woman, the new Eve, the true "Mother of all the living."
2619 That is why the Canticle of Mary, (cf. Lk 1:46-55) the Magnificat
(Latin) or Megalynei (Byzantine) is the song both of the Mother of God and of the Church; the song of the
Daughter of Zion and of the new People of God; the song of thanksgiving for the fullness of
graces poured out in the economy of salvation and the song of the "poor" whose hope is met by the
fulfillment of the promises made to our ancestors, "to Abraham and to his posterity for ever."
2622 The prayers of the Virgin Mary, in her Fiat and Magnificat, are characterized
by the generous offering of her whole being in faith.
2665 The prayer of the Church, nourished by the Word of God and the celebration
of the liturgy, teaches us to pray to the Lord Jesus. Even though her prayer is addressed above all to
the Father, it includes in all the liturgical traditions forms of prayer addressed to Christ. Certain
psalms, given their use in the Prayer of the Church, and the New Testament place on our lips and
engrave in our hearts prayer to Christ in the form of invocations: Son of God, Word of God, Lord, Savior,
Lamb of God, King, Beloved Son, Son of the Virgin, Good Shepherd, our Life, our Light, our Hope,
our Resurrection, Friend of mankind.....
2673 In prayer the Holy Spirit unites us to the person of the only Son, in his
glorified humanity, through which and in which our filial prayer unites us in the Church with the Mother
of Jesus. (cf. Acts 1:14)
2674 Mary gave her consent in faith at the Annunciation and maintained it without
hesitation at the foot of the Cross. Ever since, her motherhood has extended to the brothers and
sisters of her Son "who still journey on earth surrounded by dangers and difficulties." (LG 62)
Jesus, the only mediator, is the way of our prayer; Mary, his mother and ours, is wholly transparent to
him: she "shows the way" (hodigitria), and is herself "the Sign" of the way, according to the
traditional iconography of East and West.
2675 Beginning with Mary's unique cooperation with the working of the Holy
Spirit, the Churches developed their prayer to the holy Mother of God, centering it on the person of Christ
manifested in his mysteries. In countless hymns and antiphons expressing this prayer, two
movementsusually alternate with one another: the first "magnifies" the Lord for the "great things" he did for
his lowly servant and through her for all human beings; (cf. Lk 1:46-55) the second entrusts the
supplications and praises of the children of God to the Mother of Jesus, because she now knows
the humanity which, in her, the Son of God espoused.
2676 This twofold movement of prayer to Mary has found a privileged expression in the Ave Maria:
Hail Mary [or Rejoice, Mary]: the greeting of the angel Gabriel opens this
prayer.It is God himself who, through his angel as intermediary, greets Mary. Our prayer dares to take
up this greeting to Mary with the regard God had for the lowliness of his humble servant and to
exult in the joy he finds in her. (cf. Lk 1:48; Zeph 3-17b)
Full of grace, the Lord is with thee: These two phrases of the angel's greeting shed light on
one another. Mary is full of grace because the Lord is with her. The grace with which she is filled is
the presence of him who is the source of all grace. "Rejoice...O Daughter of Jerusalem...the Lord
your God is in your midst." (Zeph 3:14, 17a) Mary, in whom the Lord himself has just made his
dwelling is the daughter of Zion in person, the ark of the covenant, the place where the glory of the Lord
dwells. She is "the dwelling of God...with men." (Rev 21:3) Full of grace, Mary is wholly given
over to him who has come to dwell in her and whom she is about to give to the world.
Blessed art thou among women and blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus. After the angel's
greeting, we make Elizabeth's greeting our own. "Filled with the Holy Spirit," Elizabeth is the
first in the long succession of generations who have called Mary "blessed." (Lk 1:41, 48) "Blessed is
she who believed...." (Lk 1:45) Mary is "blessed among women" because she believed in the
fulfillment of the Lord's word. Abraham, because of his faith, became a blessing for all the nations of the
earth. cf. Gen 12:3) Mary, because of her faith, became the mother of believers, through whom all nations
of the earth receive him who is God's own blessing: Jesus, the "fruit of thy womb."
2677 Holy Mary, Mother of God: With Elizabeth we marvel, "And why is this
granted me, that the mother of my Lord should come to me?" (Lk 1:43) Because she gives us Jesus, her
son, Mary is Mother of God and our mother; we can entrust all our cares and petitions to her: she
prays for us as she prayed for herself: "Let it be to me according to your word." (Lk 1:38) By
entrusting ourselves to her prayer, we abandon ourselves to the will of God together with her: "Thy will be done."
Pray for us sinners, now and at the hour of our death: By asking Mary to pray
for us, we acknowledge ourselves to be poor sinners and we address ourselves to the "Mother of
Mercy," the All-Holy One. We give ourselves over to her now, in the Today of our lives. And our trust
broadens further, already at the present moment, to surrender "the hour of our death" wholly to
her care. May she be there as she was at her son's death on the cross. May she welcome us as our
mother at the hour of our passing (cf. Jn 19:27) to lead us to her son, Jesus, in paradise.
2678 Medieval piety in the West developed the prayer of the rosary as a popular
substitute for the Liturgy of the Hours. In the East, the litany called the Akathistos and the
Paraclesis remained closer to the choral office in the Byzantine churches, while the Armenian, Coptic, and
Syriac traditions preferred popular hymns and songs to the Mother of God. But in the Ave Maria,
the theotokia, the hymns of St. Ephrem or St. Gregory of Narek, the tradition of prayer is basically
2679 Mary is the perfect Orans (pray-er), a figure of the Church. When we pray to
her, we are adhering with her to the plan of the Father, who sends his Son to save all men. Like the
beloved disciple we welcome Jesus' mother into our homes, (cf. Jn 19:27) for she has become
the mother of all the living. We can pray with and to her. The prayer of the Church is sustained by
the prayer of Mary and united with it in hope. (cf. LG 68-69)
2682 Because of Mary's singular cooperation with the action of the Holy Spirit the
Church loves to pray in communion with the Virgin Mary, to magnify with her the great things
the Lord has done for her, and to entrust supplications and praises to her.
2725 Prayer is both a gift of grace and a determined response on our part. It always
presupposes effort. The great figures of prayer of the Old Covenant before Christ, as well as the
Mother of God, the saints, and he himself, all teach us this: prayer is a battle. Against whom?
Against ourselves and against the wiles of the tempter who does all he can to turn man away from prayer,
away from union with God. We pray as we live, because we live as we pray. If we do not want to
act habitually according to the Spirit of Christ, neither can we pray habitually in his name. The
"spiritual battle" of the Christian's new life is inseparable from the battle of prayer.
2827 "If any one is a worshiper of God and does his will, God listens to him." (Jm
9:31; cf. 1 Jn 5:14) Such is the power of the Church's prayer in the name of her Lord, above all in the
Eucharist. Her prayer is also a communion of intercession with the all-holy Mother of God (cf.
Lk 1:38, 49) and all the saints who have been pleasing to the Lord because they willed his will alone:
It would not be inconsistent with the truth to understand the words, "Thy will
be done on earth as it is in heaven," to mean: "in the Church as in our Lord Jesus Christ himself"; or "in the Bride
who has been betrothed, just as in the Bridegroom who has accomplished the will of the Father." (Augustine)
2837 "Daily (epiousios) occurs nowhere else in the New Testament. ...
The Eucharist is our daily bread. ... The Father in heaven urges us, as children of heaven, to ask
for the bread of heaven. [Christ] himself is the bread who, sown in the Virgin, raised up in the flesh,
kneaded in the Passion, baked in the oven of the tomb, reserved in churches, brought to altars,
furnishes the faithful each day with food from heaven. (Peter Chrysologus, Sermo 67)
[But deliver us from evil]
2853 Victory over the "prince of this world" (Jn 14:30) was won once for all at the Hour
when Jesus freely gave himself up to death to give us his life. This is the judgment of this world,
and the prince of this world is "cast out." (Jn 12:31; Rev 12:10) "He pursued the woman" (Rev
12:13-16) but had no hold on her: the new Eve, "full of grace" of the Holy Spirit, is preserved from sin and
the corruption of death (the Immaculate Conception and the Assumption of the Most Holy Mother
of God, Mary, ever virgin). "Then the dragon was angry with the woman, and went off to make war
on the rest of her offspring." (Rev 12:17) Therefore the Spirit and the Church pray: "Come, Lord
Jesus," (Rev 22:17, 20) since his coming will deliver us from the Evil One.