The Life of Mary: Sacred Scripture:
Old Testament Typologies (Daughter of Zion, et al)

The charts below are direct quotes from Post-Vatican II Magisterial Documents concerning the theme, Mary's Life, Old Testament Typologies. These teachings of the Catholic Church may prove useful to include in talks, in homilies or for research. For the full title and document data, click on the abbreviation code (for example, BYM leads you to the document, Behold Your Mother). This will also lead you to the complete document on this website or assist you in locating it elsewhere.

For an index of the documents used in the study see: List of Magisterial Documents
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Documents VI. The Life of Mary
1. Sacred Scripture: Old Testament Typologies (Daughter of Zion, et al)
Lumen Gentium, 1964
  • stands out among the poor and humble of the Lord who confidently hope and receive salvation from him 55
  • the times are fulfilled in her, the exalted Daughter of Sion 55
  • prophetically foreshadowed (cf. Gen 3:15) 55
  • virgin [to conceive] Emmanuel (cf. Is 7:14; Mic 5:2-3; Mt 1:22-23) 55
  • being of the race of Adam 53
  • daughter of Adam 56
  • Mary [is] Eve, Mother of the living 56
  • in the manner of a new Eve 63
Signum Magnum, 1967
  • [liturgy] "You are the glory of Jerusalem, you are the joy of Israel, you are the honor of our people." [ftn 28: Second Antiphon at Lauds, feast of the Immaculate Conception, Dec 8] 25
  • we see her as the new Eve, as the lofty daughter of Sion, as the crown of the Old Covenant 25
Creed, Paul VI, 1968
  • the New Eve [see ftn 20] 15
Behold Your Mother (USA), 1973 Ark of the Covenant
  • [See 25f., History of the Ark of the Covenant] 23
  • The Mother of Jesus is the new and perfect ark of the covenant, the living tabernacle of the divine presence. The sacred ark that disappeared six centuries before has now returned in a more perfect way. Mary is the living ark of the covenant carrying Jesus. 27
  • The 'ark of the covenant' theme continues in St. Luke's account of Mary's visit to her relative, Elizabeth. The Old Testament counterpart is provided by the story of the transfer of the ark of the covenant by King David (2 Sm 6). [See three parallels] 27
Believing Remnant
  • God's free election made Mary the representative of the believing remnant. 15

Daughter of Adam (LG 56) 55

Daughter of Zion

  • Mary is the "exalted Daughter of Zion" in whom, after the long waiting for the promise, the times are fulfilled and the new dispensation is established. 15
  • Luke sees in Mary the Daughter of Zion who rejoices because God is with her and who praises His greatness for pulling down the mighty and exalting the humble. 17
  • More on Daughter of Zion: 20, 21, 22 (Zep 3:14-17), 36, 37
Figure of the Woman
  • The books of the Old Testament, as they are understood by the Church in the light of Christian revelation, "bring the figure of the woman, Mother of the Redeemer, into a gradually sharper focus." (LG 55) In the fulfillment, we find the vague "figure of a woman" realized in the woman who is Mary of Nazareth. 19
Genesis 3:15
  • The light of completion shows that the Redeemer's Mother was "already prophetically foreshadowed in that victory over the serpent which was promised to our first parents after their fall into sin." (cf. Gen 3:15) (LG 55) 19
House of David (2 Sm 7:12-16)

Isaiah 7:14

  • With St. Matthew, the Church holds that the Mother of Jesus is likewise the Virgin who will conceive a Son called Emmanuel. (Mt 1:22-23, cf. Is 7:14, Mi 5:2-3) 19
The New Eve
  • The future Eve ... is realized ... preeminently in Mary of Nazareth. 5
  • The comparison between the first Eve, primitive mother of the living, and Mary, the new Eve, is the oldest Christian reflection on the Blessed Virgin outside the Bible, and accords well with the New Testament teaching that Christ is the new Adam. (Rom 5:19) 14
  • The Eve-Mary comparison is rooted in the covenant theology of the Old Testament, in which God's free initiative stirs up man's response of faith.... In Mary's response, "Let it be done to me as you say," the expectation of the old covenant achieves perfect expression. 15
  • After the Scriptures, the oldest consideration of the Virgin Mary by Christian writers is that she is the 'new Eve'. [St. Justin (d. 165) contrasts M/Eve; St. lrenaeus (d. ca. 202), recapitulation, virginal obedience] 40
  • St. Jerome (d. 420), "death through Eve, life through Mary" (LG 56); St. Epiphanius (d. 403) "the mother of the living." (LG 56) [see also 134, pastoral]. 41
The Poor and Humble
  • "She stands out among the poor and humble of the Lord who confidently await and receive salvation from Him." (LG 55) 15
  • includes the poor and lowly, the humble of spirit, the devout believers 16
  • Luke begins his gospel by taking us into the company of poor and holy people: Elizabeth and Zachary, Anna and Simeon, Joseph and Mary. 17
Marialis Cultus, 1974 Biblical Studies: [One of the four mandated guidelines for devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary]
  • In its wonderful presentation of God's plan for man's salvation, the Bible is replete with the mystery of the Savior, and from Genesis to the Book of Revelation, also contains clear references to her who was the Mother and associate of the Savior.... What is needed is that texts of prayers and chants should draw their inspiration and their wording from the Bible, and above all that devotion to the Virgin should be imbued with the great themes of the Christian message. This will ensure that, as they venerate the Seat of Wisdom, the faithful in their turn will be enlightened by the divine word, and be inspired to live their lives in accordance with the precepts of Incarnate Wisdom. 30
  • The reading of the divine Scriptures, carried out under the guidance of the Holy Spirit, and with the discoveries of the human sciences and the different situations in the world today being taken into account, will help us to see what can be considered a mirror of the expectations of the men and women of our time. 37
  • [for liturgy of] Immaculate Conception (cf. Is. 11:1, 10) the basic preparation for the coming of the Savior and of the happy beginning of the Church without spot or wrinkle (See Preface) 3
  • [Advent liturgy] recalls the ancient prophecies concerning the Virgin Mother and the Messiah (Footnote 12 gives texts for A,B,C) 4
  • March 25: liturgies celebrate it as a feast of the new Eve, the obedient and faithful virgin, who with her generous "fiat" (cf. Lk. 1:38) became through the working of the Spirit, not only the Mother of God, but also the true Mother of the living, and, by receiving into her womb the one Mediator (cf. I Tm. 2:5), became the true Ark of the Covenant and true Temple of God. 6
  • Presentation of the Lord (February 2), [BV] the one who performs a mission belonging to ancient Israel (cf. Lk. 2:21-35) 7
  • [Magnificat: Mary--Abraham] 18
Gaudete in Domino, 1975
  • What a marvelous echo the prophetic words about the new Jerusalem find in her wonderful existence as the Virgin of Israel: "I will greatly rejoice in the Lord, my soul shall exult in my God; for he has clothed me with the garment of salvation, he had covered me with the robe of righteousness, as a bridegroom decks himself with a garland and as a bride adorns herself with her jewels!" (Is 61:10) IV
  • And so it was with the Jerusalem praised by the psalmists. Jesus himself and Mary his mother sang on earth as they went up to Jerusalem the canticles of Zion: "perfection of beauty," "joy to the whole world." (Ps 50:2; 48:3) VII
Redemptoris Mater, 1987
  • Her presence in the midst of Israel ... shone very clearly before the Eternal One, who had associated this hidden "daughter of Sion" (cf. Zeph. 3:14; Zech. 2:10) with the plan of salvation embracing the whole history of humanity 3 [See also 24, 41, 47]
  • "She is already prophetically foreshadowed in that promise made to our first parents after their fall into sin" according to the Book of Genesis (cf. 3:15). "Likewise she is the Virgin who is to conceive and bear a son, whose name will be called Emmanuel"--according to the words of Isaiah (cf. 7:14). (LG 55) 7 [See also 24, 47]
  • In this way the Old Testament prepares that "fullness of time" when God "sent forth his Son, born of woman ... so that we might receive adoption as sons." (Gal 4:4) 7
  • in the soul of this "daughter of Sion" there is manifested, in a sense, all the "glory of grace," that grace which "the Father ... has given us in his beloved Son." 8
  • Mary "stands out among the poor and humble of the Lord, who confidently await and receive salvation from him." (LG 55) 8
  • (cf. Gen. 3:15). And so, there comes into the world a Son, "the seed of the woman" who will crush the evil of sin in its very origins: "he will crush the head of the serpent." 11 [See also 24, 37]
  • In contrast with the "suspicion" which the "father of lies" sowed in the heart of Eve the first woman, Mary, whom tradition is wont to call the "new Eve" (Justin, etc) and the true "Mother of the living," Epiphanius) 37 [See also 47]
The VM in Intellectual and Spiritual Formation, 1988
  • Biblical exegesis has opened new frontiers for Mariology, ever dedicating more attention to the inter-testamental literature. Some texts of the Old Testament, and especially the New Testament parts of Luke and Matthew on the infancy of Jesus and the Johannine pericopes, have been the object of continuous and deep study, the results of which have reinforced the biblical basis of Mariology and considerably enriched its themes. 11
  • "Sacred theology rests on the written word of God, together with sacred Tradition, as its primary and perpetual foundation. By scrutinizing in the light of faith all truth stored up in the mystery of Christ, theology is most powerfully strengthened and constantly rejuvenated by that word." (DV 24) The study of the sacred Scriptures, therefore, must be the soul of Mariology (DV 24; Optatam Totius, 16) 24
  • The study of Tradition is essential to research in Mariology because, as Vatican II teaches, "sacred Tradition and sacred Scripture form one sacred deposit of the word of God, which is committed to the Church." (DV 10) 26
  • Research into Scripture and Tradition, conducted according to the most fruitful methods and with the most reliable instruments of critical enquiry, must be guided by the Magisterium since "the task of authentically interpreting the word God, whether written or handed on, has been entrusted exclusively to the living teaching office of the Church." (cf. ibid., 10). This research must also integrate and be strengthened by the more secure fruits of learning in anthropology and the human sciences. 26
Mulieris Dignitatem, 1988
  • [discussion of "woman" in Gen 3:15, i.e. the Proto-evangelium] From this vantage point the two female figures, Eve and Mary, are joined under the name of woman.... The Eve-Mary comparison constantly recurs in the course of reflection on the deposit of faith received from divine Revelation. [Fathers, etc. changing concept of this parallel:
    - Eve, as "the mother of all the living": (Gen 3:20), is the witness to the biblical 'beginning', [image and likeness]. Mary is the witness to the new 'beginning' and the "new creation" (cf. 2 Cor 5:17) ... as "a new creation": she is "full of grace." ... in her the new and definitive Covenant of God. 11
  • The Eve-Mary comparison can be understood also in the sense that Mary assumes in herself and embraces the mystery of the "woman" whose beginning is Eve, "the mother of all the living" (Gen 3:20).... she assumes and embraces it within the mystery of Christ, "the new and the last Adam" (cf. 1 Cor 14:45), who assumed in his own person the nature of the first Adam. 11
  • [Adam-Christ/Eve-Mary meanings]
    --Mary ... the full revelation of all that is included in the biblical word 'woman': a revelation commensurate with the mystery of the Redemption.
    --Mary means ... a return to that 'beginning' in which one finds the 'woman' as she was intended to be in creation, and therefore in the eternal mind of God....
    --Mary is "the new beginning" of the dignity and vocation of women, of each and every woman.
    A particular key for understanding this can be found in the words which the Evangelist puts on Mary's lips after the Annunciation, "He who is mighty has done great things for me." (Lk 1:49) 11
  • In Mary, Eve discovers the nature of the true dignity of woman, of feminine humanity. This discovery must continually reach the heart of every woman and shape her vocation and her life. 11
Evangelium Vitae, 1995
    Mary becomes the model of the Church, called to be the 'new Eve', the mother of believers, the mother of the 'living'. (cf. Gen 3:20) 103
Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1994
Fidei Depositum, 1992

Women of Old Testament and Mary: 64, 489 [BB]
Daughter of Zion: 559, 583, 593, 722, 2619, 2676 [BB]
Eve and Mary: 410, 411, 494, 511, 726, 975, 2853 [BB]

  • This image, among the most ancient in Christian art, expresses a theme that lies at the heart of the Christian faith: the mystery of the incarnation of the Son of God born of the Virgin Mary.
    --At the left, the figure of a man pointing to a star, located above the Virgin with the child: a prophet, probably Balaam, who announced that "a star shall come forth out of Jacob, and a scepter shall rise out of Israel." (Num 24:17) This is the whole expectation of the Old Covenant and the cry of a fallen humanity for a savior and redeemer (cf. 27; 528).
    --This prophecy was fulfilled in the birth of Jesus ...[explanation of image after p 12]

64 Through the prophets, God forms his people in the hope of salvation, in the expectation of a new and everlasting Covenant intended for all, to be written on their hearts. (cf. Is 2:2-4 et al) The prophets proclaim a radical redemption of the People of God, purification from all their infidelities, a salvation which will include all the nations. (cf. Ezek 36 et al) Above all, the poor and humble of the Lord will bear this hope. Such holy women as Sarah, Rebecca, Rachel, Miriam, Deborah, Hannah, Judith, and Esther kept alive the hope of Israel's salvation. The purest figure among them is Mary. (cf. Zeph 2:3; Lk 1:38)

410 After his fall, man was not abandoned by God. On the contrary, God called him and in a mysterious way heralded the coming victory over evil and his restoration form his fall. (Gen 3:9, 15) This passage in Genesis is called the Proto-evangelium ('first gospel'): the first announcement of the Messiah and Redeemer, of a battle between the serpent and the Woman, and of the final victory of a descendant of hers.

411 The Christian tradition sees in this passage an announcement of the 'New Adam' who, because he "became obedient unto death, even death on a cross," makes amends superabundantly for the disobedience of Adam. (cf. 1 Cor 15:21-22 et al.) Furthermore, many Fathers and Doctors of the Church have seen the woman announced in the Protoevangelium as Mary, the mother of Christ, the 'new Eve'. Mary benefited first of all and uniquely from Christ's victory over sin: she was preserved from all stain of original sin and by a special grace of God committed no sin of any kind during her whole earthly life. (cf. Pius IX, Ineffabilis Deus)

494 ... As St. Irenaeus says, "Being obedient, she became the cause of salvation for herself and for the whole human race." Hence, not a few of the early Fathers gladly assert...: "The knot of Eve's disobedience was untied by Mary's obedience: what the virgin Eve bound through her disbelief, Mary loosened by her faith." (Irenaeus, Adv. haeres.) Comparing her with Eve, they call Mary "the Mother of the living" and frequently claim: "Death through Eve, life through Mary." (LG 56, et al) [New Eve, see also 511, 726]

Orientale Lumen, 1995
Ut Unum Sint, 1995
  • Her figure is ... the fulfillment of so many Old Testament prefigurations OL 6
Veritatis Splendor, 1993
  • Mary, the new Eve 34

© This material has been compiled by M. Jean Frisk.
Copyright is reserved for The Marian Library/International Marian Research Institute.

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