A: The Greek word for these "brothers and sisters" derives from adelphoi. Diffences of opinion on how this term should be interpreted existed in the early Church until around 380 CE. Tertullian and Helvidius considered these "adelphoi" to be full blood brothers and sisters of Jesus. Epiphanius and Origen considered them to be children of Joseph from a former marriage. Jerome opted for cousins of Jesus, children of another Mary, the wife of Clopas and sister of Mary of Nazareth, Jesus' Mother.
The New Testament says nothing of any children of Joseph and Mary, nor does the earliest tradition of the Church. Various episodes crucial for the understanding of the Holy Family as family are silent: the genealogies of Matthew and Luke; the family pilgrimage to Jerusalem in Luke 2 without mention of brothers and sisters; Mary's entrustment to John at Calvary in John 19 rather than to a son or daughter.
It is true that Catholic exegetes are influenced by the ancient doctrine of Mary's perpetual virginity and the singularity of the Christ event. For more details, see FAQ #18. The classic text on this question remains that of Joseph Blinzler. After a careful study of all the relevant texts, he offers this conclusion:
Catholic exegesis focuses both on fact and meaning. The Christ event
(fact) implies an important spiritual dimension (meaning): Who is this
Savior?; What is redemption? Who is His Mother? and what is their
relationship? All of these questions lead to interpretation of the fact(s).
Interpretations may never contradict facts. However, many facts are open to
interpretation if not disproved. The spiritual dimension attempts to lead the
reader from facts to significance. It is highly significant that Mary would
be totally and exclusively dedicated to this only Son, the Savior of all.
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