Liturgical Season 5/18/04 World News
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Mary Page News items give insight into our interest areas, our outreach, and the many ways people honor Our Lady. We welcome your input and your comments.

Liturgical Season

To celebrate the month of April with Mary:

Marian Commemoration Days

Mary Page offers a variety of resources inviting study, reflection and meditation.  We also list important Marian dates for each month of the year.  Please see Marian Commemoration Days for the month of May.

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New Resources

To help users locate The Mary Page, we have created an alternate web address, marypage.udayton.edu.

A section on Marian Spiritualities has been added to our Resources index.  The latest addition was a paper by Brother John Samaha on Mary in Byzantine Spirituality.  Expect more articles to follow.

A section on international stamps with images of Mary has also been added to our Resources index.  The latest added was Meditating the Passion of Our Lord with Stamps.  Expect more countries to follow.

A section on Mary and Women is now under construction in our Resources index.  The latest addition was John Paul II on Women.  Expect more articles to follow.

We have updated our list of Marian apparitions reported during the 20th century and their status, and also added our answer to a reader's question: Do you have information about the title, Our Lady of the Waters?

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  News from the Marian Library

Personal thoughts and reflections about Mary 
from our readers

We have received a number of emails from readers commending our Mary Page web site.  Thank you all for your encouragement and support.  The following is a typical example:

Thanks for your very useful series of questions and answers (and for your entire website). It's terrific!

Mary Ann

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Alumni Update

Michael P. Duricy, MA, STL, a graduate of IMRI, and webmaster of The Mary Page, will present his talk on Marian Symbols in the Buffy the Vampire Slayer television series on the WB at the Mariological Society of America's annual meeting in Houston, Texas.  He will repeat the presentation at the International Buffy Studies Conference in Nashville, Tennessee at the end of May.  The paper is posted on the Mary Page under Research.

By the way, Mr. Duricy recently completed his first triathlon in Moraine, Ohio on May 16, 2004.

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Current Exhibit

Heaven on Earth

Heaven on Earth, an exhibition of paintings by Brother Jerome Pryor, S.J. which celebrate the union of the Divine and the Human, will be on display in the Marian Library Gallery from April 26 to May 28, 2004.  The Gallery will be open from 8:30 am to 4:30 pm weekdays.  For more information, call (937) 229-4214.  A virtual exhibit may be seen on our Gallery section under Current Exhibit.

New Crèches will also be on display in our museum through November 2004.

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International Marian Research Institute Course Schedule

IMRI courses for the Summer 2004 semester will begin on June 14.  The schedule is now available!

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Marian Events

The Mariological Society of America 55th Annual Progam

May 19-22, 2004
The Cenacle Retreat House
420 Kirkwood
Houston, Texas 77079
Phone: (281) 497-3131

The topic will be The Immaculate Conception: Calling and Destiny.

Driving directions: Get on interstate 10 (Katy freeway) to Exit 754 (Kirkwood), two blocks south, retreat house on left.  There's a good map from the airport at www.uh.edu/uhmaps/map_airports.html

Click here for the complete program for this year's MSA meeting.

Click this link for a list of all of the current Marian Events by geographical position.

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Prayer Corner Requests

You are invited to help us pray for our Prayer Corner intentions.  Please take a look!  This site has been updated and enhanced and now allows users to directly submit prayer requests or to volunteer as a prayer partner for these intentions!

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News from Around the World



Today is Pope John Paul’s 84th birthday. VIS subscribers who wish to e-mail birthday wishes to him may do so by clicking on the link below, and then clicking on the icon of the Pope where it says "Wishes to the Holy Father."

Click here: http://www.vatican.va/phome_en.htm

"Arise, Let us be going," the latest book by Pope John Paul, was released today to coincide with the Pope’s birthday. It contains reflections on his life as a bishop and on the ministry of every bishop. John Paul II was ordained a bishop on September 28, 1958.

The book is 178 pages long, has an introduction, six chapters, notes, a list of quotations from the Bible and the Magisterium and an index.

Holy See Press Office Director Joaquin Navarro-Valls, in a statement made this morning to journalists, said: "For the Holy Father today is an ordinary work day, above all one of thanksgiving. One special detail: the Holy Father has invited his closest collaborators in the Curia to lunch.

"Birthday wishes have arrived from around the world, and not just from Catholics, for John Paul II. They have come from heads of State and government, Church officials and people in the world of politics, business and the arts, but above all from single individuals who wish to express their affection and gratitude to the Pope."

…/POPE BIRTHDAY:BOOK/… VIS 040518 (240)



This morning the Pope received in St. Peter’s Square the participants in yesterday’s canonization of five of the six new saints: Hannibal Maria Di Francia, Josep Manyanet y Vives, Nimatullah Kassab Al-Hardini, Paola Elisabetta Cerioli and Gianna Beretta Molla.

The Pope offered some brief reflections on the devotion that the new saints had to Our Lady. "St. Hannibal Maria Di Francia," he said, "was honored to have the name of Our Lady, whom he called ‘My mother,’ from his baptism. He nourished a tender and ardent devotion to her and he invoked her as Mother of the Church and Mother of vocations."

St. Josep Manyanet "was an instrument chosen to promote the good of the family as well as the education of children and young people," he said.

"Praying the rosary set the pace of St. Nimatullah Al-Hardini’s days from childhood. Throughout his life he found in the Mother of God, the Immaculate Conception, the model of fidelity to Christ to whom he aspired."

"In reference to St. Paola Elisabetta Cerioli, wife and mother, John Paul II emphasized that "in the school of Mary she knew how to transform natural love into supernatural love, allowing God to enlarge her motherly heart."

Referring to St. Gianna Beretta Molla, the Holy Father said that "she nourished a deep devotion to Our Lady. References to the Virgin were frequent in her letters to her husband – who is still alive - before marriage and in the subsequent years of her life, especially when she underwent surgery to remove a tumor, without endangering the life that she carried in her womb."


From Zenit

Gibson's Film Stirs Passions in German-Speaking Areas

A Range of Responses to Movie About Christ's Suffering

BERLIN, MAY 13, 2004 (Zenit.org)

Mel Gibson's movie "The Passion of the Christ" has faced a passionate, and varied, reception in German-speaking lands.

The film was criticized in a joint statement from the Central Jewish Council in Germany, the Catholic bishops' conference and the Protestant leadership in Germany in March.

"We find the extent of brutal scenes of violence extremely upsetting," the statement said. It exceeds "for many people the limit of tolerable experiences."

The performance involves "a certain danger that anti-Semitic prejudices are revived," it added.

Yet, the movie had its defenders too.

Bishop Walter Mixa of Eichstaett admitted that he was "deeply moved" by the realistic display of the cruelty Jesus faced during his passion and death. He asked whether the suffering and death of Christ might not be compared with the cruelties seen in Kosovo and in the Holy Land today.

"The reality of the events was brutal," said Bishop Gerhard Ludwig Müller of Regensburg. The movie was "a moving contribution to the understanding of Christ's passion. The brutality displayed at some points indicates what people are capable of in their darkest qualities."

The Swiss Protestant Alliance considers the movie neither to be glorifying violence nor to be anti-Semitic. The film takes the viewer closer to the suffering of Jesus of Nazareth than one wants to permit, the group said in a statement.

Still, the Swiss Protestant Church Union and the information office of the Swiss Catholic bishops' episcopal conference said in a joint press release that "to reduce the idea of Christ to the image of the suffering Christ was problematic from a theological point of view."

The positive effect of the display of violence, they added, was that it created awareness of "the cross neither being a symbol … nor in any case a piece of decoration or jewelry, but an instrument for torture and killing. This education serves well."

Auxiliary Bishop Helmut Krätzl of Vienna said: "Whoever is inspired by Vatican II will hardly know what to make of Gibson's movie."

The film was "not suitable for bringing people in contact with the Christian faith," said the Austrian prelate.

It distorted the Christian-Jewish idea of God, he contended. Jesus is "portrayed in a very reduced way," that is, only as suffering. According to Bishop Krätzl: "We as the Church should feel no imperative to be waiting for such a film."

Viennese pastoral theologian Paul Zulehner said that the film showed foremost "the incredible dimension of violence people are capable of."

The film teaches "that no one is uninvolved--not the religious officials, not the executioners of the occupying forces, not the politicians, like the liberal Pilate, who despite washing his hands of it becomes implicated in the events. Maybe not even I myself," Zulehner said.

Jósef Niewiadomski, professor for dogmatic theology in Innsbruck, thought that the movie was not anti-Semitic.

He said that a "very strong image against anti-Semitism" was the scene when Simon and Jesus together carry the cross and are harassed by the Romans.

Fatima's New Church Moves Ahead

Controversy at Shrine Hasn't Affected Construction

By Delia Gallagher

ROME, MAY 13, 2004 (Zenit.org)

Today is the anniversary of the first of the Blessed Virgin Mary's apparitions at Fatima, in 1917.

In recent months, the sanctuary at Fatima was the focus of controversy because of comments by its rector, Monsignor Luciano Gomes Paulo Guerra, that a new Church being built near the shrine would be used for inter-religious purposes (see Rome Notes Jan. 1).

I spoke to Bishop Serafim de Sousa Ferreira e Silva, of the Leiria-Fatima Diocese, to find out the latest on the situation. Plans for the new church are going ahead, he said. The church will be a Catholic one, much like the Pius X Church in Lourdes, built near the shrine to accommodate the thousands of pilgrims who come to Fatima each month.

As with any Catholic church, it will be open to all, but the services held there will be Catholic.

The bishop told me he had just been to visit Fatima and will be returning for today's celebrations. The controversy of several months ago has not affected either the work on the church nor the number of pilgrims who visit the shrine in Portugal. "The pilgrims who come here are not concerned by a controversy caused by a few foreigners. People come here to pray, and they continue to come in the thousands," he said.

The president of the Pontifical Council for Inter-religious Dialogue, Archbishop Michael Fitzgerald, expressed the hope that those devoted to Fatima remember that "the figure of Mary should be one that brings people together rather than divides them." "The best witness we can give," Archbishop Fitzgerald said, "is to take our example from the words of the Acts of the Apostles, 'See how they love one another.'"

Pope Highlights a Devotion Shared by Newly Canonized Saints

Pilgrims Congratulate John Paul II on Eve of 84th Birthday

VATICAN CITY, MAY 17, 2004 (Zenit.org)

Thousands of pilgrims sang congratulatory songs to John Paul II on the eve of his 84th birthday, during the audience he granted just 24 hours after canonizing six saints.

The Pope granted the audience today to groups of pilgrims who came to Rome in support of five of the new saints. On Saturday, he had already received the faithful who came to attend the canonization of Luigi Orione (1872-1940), founder of the Little Work of Divine Providence and of the Little Sisters Missionaries of Charity.

During today's audience, the Pope recalled a common denominator of the newly canonized saints: "filial devotion to the Virgin Mary."

Recalling Annibale Maria Di Francia (1851-1927), the Holy Father explained that the saint "was honored to bear since his baptism the name of the Virgin, whom he liked to call 'my Mama.' He had a very tender and ardent devotion for her, and invoked her as Mother of the Church and Mother of vocations."

Father Di Francia founded the Rogationist Fathers of the Heart of Jesus as well as the Daughters of Divine Zeal.

Of St. Josep Manyanet (1833-1901), John Paul II said: "The 'Gospel of the family,' lived by Jesus in Nazareth together with Mary and Joseph, was the moving force of his pastoral charity" and "inspired his teaching."

Father Manyanet founded the Sons of the Holy Family of Jesus, Mary and Joseph as well as the Missionary Daughters of the Holy Family of Nazareth.

John Paul II then mentioned the testimony of Nimatullah Kassab Al-Hardini (1808-1858), a priest of the Lebanese Maronite Order, saying that he "found in the Mother of God, the immaculate conception, the very model of faithfulness to Christ, to which he aspired."

Of Paola Elisabetta Cerioli (1816-1865), a religious who founded the Institute of the Sisters of the Holy Family and the congregation of the Family of Bergamo, the Pope recalled that "in the school of Mary she was able to transform natural love into supernatural love, allowing God to expand her mother's heart."

Lastly, the Holy Father proposed the testimony of Gianna Beretta Molla (1922-1962), mother of a family and doctor, who at 39 took the risk of dying rather than aborting the child she was bearing.

"The reference to the Virgin is repeated in her letter to her fiancé Pietro, and in the following years of her life, especially when she was hospitalized for the removal of a fibroma without endangering the child she bore in her womb," the Pope said.

"It was precisely Mary who supported her in the supreme sacrifice of death, confirming what she always loved to say: 'Without the Virgin's help, one cannot go to Paradise,'" the Holy Father said.

He concluded with advice for the pilgrims: "Follow their footsteps and imitate them, particularly their filial devotion to the Virgin, to advance always on the path of holiness."


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Mary in the Secular Press

The director and editors of Mary Page under the auspices of the International Marian Research Institute do not necessarily endorse or agree with the events and ideas expressed in this feature. Our sole purpose is to report on items about Mary gleaned from a myriad of papers representing the secular press.

Believers: Don't mess with the Blessed Mother; Revered shrine would be obliterated by expressway's path in Pittsburgh. [Source: The Morning Call (Allentown, PA), 4/19/2004]

As a host of organizations has tried--and so far, failed--to stop the Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission's plan to bring a highway into the heart of Pittsburgh, opponents have decried the commission's lack of public accountability.

But if it carries out its plan, the commission will have to answer to a higher power.

As drawn up, the Mon-Fayette Expressway being built by the commission would cut a swath through the sheer rock wall abutting the Parkway East in the Oakland section of Pittsburgh.

High atop that rock wall is a site that believers say was sanctified by the Virgin Mary.

And there, the Catholic faithful since 1956 have walked the sloping path to a shrine erected in her honor.

The Shrine of the Blessed Mother is used for daily prayer, monthly rosaries, Stations of the Cross and an occasional Mass.

"It's very peaceful there," said Sophie Koss of Pittsburgh.

That refuge, however, would be transformed into a multilane toll road if the Turnpike follows through on its plans.

Stories are not definitive about the shrine, which is not officially recognized by the Diocese of Pittsburgh. But according to visitors, printed accounts and Turnpike officials, believers had visions of the Virgin Mary that led them to the rocky garden high above the commuters on the Parkway East. According to the story, when Josephine DeNardo, an early pilgrim, brought flowers to the shrine, a stream of water began flowing from the rock.

Paul Surgent can look from his house at 10 Wakefield St. onto the shrine and the parkway below. Is he happy about the construction of the Mon-Fayette?

"Hell no," he says. "They want to take our shrine."

The Turnpike has offered to move the shrine to another location, but Koss said location is essential to the shrine. That, after all, is where the flowers are fed from water flowing from the rock.
"We feel bad about it because we take care of it," Koss said.

Turnpike spokesman Joe Agnello said officials have met with parishioners from nearby St. Regis Church and discussed plans to rebuild the shrine elsewhere.

He noted that the shrine was built on land partly owned by the city, which until now had no reason to interfere with its operation.

Although the shrine is not within the Parkway East's right of way, it is within its "slope limit," which Agnello said would give the Turnpike authority to take the property.

"It has been described as the most holy place in Pittsburgh," Agnello said. "It's sort of an unusual situation."

Meanwhile, the people of St. Regis are praying the shrine is spared.

"We're going to leave it in the Blessed Mother's hands," Koss said. "She's more powerful than we are."

Render vain the logic of death, pope urges leaders at Easter [Source: Intelligencer Journal (Lancaster, PA), 4/12/2004]

VATICAN CITY Pope John Paul II celebrated Easter Mass Sunday with calls for world leaders to resolve conflicts in Iraq, the Holy Land and Africa, as Christians around the world marked the holiest day on the church calendar. John Paul delivered a message of peace on the flower-decked steps of St. Peters Basilica, praying that hope would conquer the inhuman phenomenon of terrorism and urging Christians, Muslims and Jews to seek greater unity with each other. May the culture of life and love render vain the logic of death, he told tens of thousands of the faithful and tourists gathered in St. Peters under tight security on an overcast day.

The 83-year-old pope delivered the message in his traditional Urbi et Orbi Easter address, Latin for To the City and the World. He spoke clearly and strongly, despite a grueling schedule of Holy Week ceremonies in recent days. Easter marks the day, according to the Bible, that Jesus rose from the dead after being crucified.

The joyous celebrations in Rome contrasted with the muted Easter festivities in Jerusalem, where a few hundred pilgrims and Palestinian Christians attended Mass at the Church of the Holy Sepulcher built over the skull-shaped rocky mount believed to be the place where Jesus was crucified. Attendance also was low at Virgin Mary Catholic Church in Baghdad, where about 100 Chaldean Catholics celebrated Mass. In Moscow, the head of the Russian Orthodox Church, Patriarch Alexy II, prayed for the victims of a Siberian methane blast that killed at least 40 coal miners. And in London, Archbishop of Canterbury Rowan Williams spiritual leader of the worldwide Anglican Communion whose members also celebrated Easter on Sunday said the world must not forget those who die in often-ignored places like Africa. Easter was festive in Greece, where Orthodox Christians set fireworks and flares at churches across the country.

This year, the holiday falls on the same day in the Roman Catholic and Orthodox calendars a coincidence John Paul mentioned when he expressed hope for more unity between the churches that have been split for 1,000 years. I pray to the risen Lord that all of us baptized may soon be able to together relive this fundamental feast of our faith each year on the same day, he said. The head of the Romanian Orthodox Church, Patriarch Teoctist, echoed his call, saying there couldn't be a more divine gift than the one that we celebrate Easter at the same time.

Flower Symbolism [Source: Lancaster New Era (Lancaster, PA), 4/8/2004]

AS AN ART HISTORIAN, I am often asked to explain art history's floral symbolism. People ask me questions like: Why is a child depicted in a 19th century portrait holding a forget-me-not? Why is that marble portrait bust of King Louis XIV adorned with a garland of carved sunflowers? Why are tulips so prominent in 17th century still life paintings? While some believe this floral iconography is some secret language, these images of flowers speak volumes to those who can do the translation. Here, I'll share my art and antiques Floral/English dictionary with you.

Some basic floral symbols include the white lily as a reference to the purity of the Virgin Mary, the red rose that recalls passionate love, and the carnation which symbolizes fidelity in marriage. To answer some of the common questions: A portrait of a child holding a forget-me-not tells the viewer that the sitter was deceased at the time the painting was commissioned. The diminutive flower instructs viewers of the portrait to forget-me-not. As for King Louis XIV, he was known as the Sun King during his late 1600s reign. At the Palace of Versailles, royal architects designed the Kings bedroom in the eastern portion of the mansion, so he would rise every morning in the same manner as the sun rises in the east. It follows that the mighty sunflower would become the icon of Louis XIVs court. Artists depicted him in paintings and sculptures surrounded by sunflowers.

While these examples seem straightforward, an explanation of the Dutch and their love of tulips, while timely, is a little bit more complicated. At this time of year, with springtime approaching and tax returns due, I thought that the flower of focus should be the ever-popular tulip. This mildly fragrant bloom announces, via its trumpet form, the coming of spring. Tulips reflect a longstanding and quintessential symbol of luxury, wealth and prosperity in art and antiques. I hope your tax returns reflect the same! Tulip history Tulips had their 15 minutes of fame in the early 1600s in Holland as botanist Carolus Clusius brought the first tulip buds from Constantinople to Leiden in 1593. Originally used in medical research experiments, the exotic flower sparked great economic interest. High-priced sales of tulips and their onion-like bulbs spread throughout Europe. Tulipomania resulted as well-to-do Dutchmen developed a taste for tulips as a luxury item. Some socialites regarded precious tulip bulbs even too valuable to plant. Many would just save the bulbs and present them on a dining table as part of a high-style centerpiece. By the 1630s, tulips had increased wildly in popularity and in price with significant property exchanges taking place all in the pursuit of tulips. Tulips were luxury items in art and antiques, too. The delicate flower serves as a status symbol reflecting a taste for the expensive. Tulips are the flower to seek out if you want to find that artwork or antique that may have once adorned a grand manor house or kings mansion.

Painting blossoms Since the late 1500s, the tulip has been the flower of the privileged. Dutch baroque artists in the circle of Rembrandt and Vermeer, like Heda, de Heem and Rauysch, all painted floral still lifes featuring an abundance of tulips for a new breed of art collectors, and of course, for the rich. At international auctions, these 17th century flower paintings bring as much as six figures from collectors. Today, the favorite flower still helps promote Hollands tourist industry and gives art and antique lovers an easy image to look for when seeking out great pieces.

Tulipomania spreads

To promote such luxury and wealth, tulip motifs can be found on many diverse antique objects ranging from the 1700s to the 2000s. Tulips can be found on 1780s colonial blanket chests, mid-19th century embroidered samplers, tollware, William and Mary tavern tables, jamb stoves, Modern Newcomb pottery, Daum Nancy glass, dovetailed and painted trinket boxes, early 20th century cast-iron doorstops, 1930s applique quilts, Art Nouveau Tiffany lamps, and barn door hinges. Their appearance in the history of art and decorative arts says high status, high style and luxury.

In American art and antiques, Tulipomania took place on a global scale as the flower became popular with collectors of varied tastes. Americas interest in tulips occurred in the 19th century through fine works of art and functional antiques. A good example derives from the Pennsylvania Dutch tradition where tulips could be found painted on blanket chests, hex signs and on hand-colored family birth or wedding certificates known as frakturs. Tulips decorated these pieces as an indication of hope for wealth, privilege and prosperity in the family home. Recently, an 18th century small-scale trinket box adorned with a bold painted tulip sold at auction for nearly $5,000.

Post-war prosperity

In the 20th century, the tulip became a true symbol of wealth and prosperity. After the Great Depression of the 1930s, common glass biscuit jars were decorated with tulips to indicate a change in the financial tide. By the late 1940s, tulip buds were reintroduced to Americans as a popular element of the fashionable decor. The tulip was the obvious choice in World War II's aftermath when Americans were rebuilding and rebirthing at home. In the historic Levittowns and other post-war suburbs across the U.S., wrought-iron railings were shaped into tulip banisters while rosewood table legs had shaped carvings of the triumphant blossoms. American soldiers and their young families embraced the American prosperity movement selecting the tulip as a favorite symbol.

Flowerbeds and financial institutions

Flowerbeds planted with tulips outside of homes reflected the taste for tulips that popped up on decorated quilts and coverlets inside them. In American kitchens, hand painted Blue Ridge tea cups and saucers that attract today's dishware line collectors with prices into the low $100s reflect the hopeful feeling of the late 1940s and 1950s. The tulip along with a smiling blonde Dutch girl appeared on various versions of the American-made Hull pottery cookie jars that sell today for $300 to $400 to collectors. Now that's tulipomania that can bring you tulip-o-money-a! Also, tulips adorned mid-20th century fruit bowls, candy dishes, canister sets and advertising tins, all in the promotion of American prosperity. If you have one of these popular advertising tins from the mid-1950s, you could command as much as $65 to $85 on today's secondary market. Even early 21st century banks embrace the tulip. As a logo, the prosperous tulip icon is often chosen to represent savings institutions. The tulip icon subliminally indicates to potential customers that this financial institution can bring results because the tulip reflects wealth and prosperity. So, if you want to collect and prosper, look for the sign of luxury, wealth and the times look for the tulip. Happy spring! Dr. Lori is an art historian, certified appraiser and museum curator. Locally, she discusses art and antiques from 9 to 9:30 a.m. Saturdays on the KYW-TV 3 program Trash or Treasure?

Author and photographer gather 'Guadalupe' tributes [Source: Albuquerque Journal (New Mexico), 4/25/2004]

"Celebrating Guadalupe" by Jacqueline Orsini Dunnington, photographs by Charles Mann

Rio Nuevo Publishers, $15.95, 84 pp.

"Celebrating Guadalupe" is just as the title of this survey book suggests--a tribute to the Virgin Mary of the New World, the Virgin of Guadalupe.

Actually, with its informative text and captivating photographs the book is a "show-and-tell" of how her followers pay tribute to her.

"The Virgin of Guadalupe" may be the most recognized name. But as the book points out, Roman Catholics have given her many different names.

Among those names in English are The Brown Virgin, Madonna of the Barrios, Queen of the Americas and Our Lady of Guadalupe; in Spanish some of her names are La Criolla, Emperatriz de America, La Pastora, La Virgen de Tepeyac; and, speculatively, in Nahuatl, Coatlaxopeuh, Tequanatlanopeuh and Tlecuauhtlapcupeuh.

In translation, the three Nahuatl-based names, respectively, carry strong images--"the one who crushed the serpent's head," "she who originates from the rocks" and "she who emerges from the region of light like the eagle from fire."

The legend of the Virgin of Guadalupe, according to the book, tells of Juan Diego, a Christianized Aztec who in 1531 had a vision--and heard the voice--of a woman who identified herself as "the eternal consummate virgin Saint Mary... ''

The tale goes that she asked Juan Diego to built her a temple where she was standing, which happened to be the site of a shrine consecrated to Tonantzin, an Aztec goddess of fertility, rain and the lunar cycles.

Another version of the story, the book relates, says the virgin asked Juan Diego, in a series of four apparitions, to plead to the bishop-elect to build a temple for her.

It wasn't until Juan Diego's cloak with the "miraculous portrait" of the virgin on it fell to the ground at the feet of the bishop-elect that the cleric believed Juan Diego.  The legend has become central to Mexico's cultural and religious heritage.

At least six New Mexico references are in the book:

* A photo of Stephen Calles and Craig Moya holding their prize-winning statue of the virgin at the 2003 Spanish Market in Santa Fe.

* A photo of marachin headdresses at the Guadalupe celebration in Tortugas.

* In 1663, Fray Juan Ramirez wrote of traveling to Socorro with an image of Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe.

* The oldest church dedicated to the virgin is in Santa Fe.

* A Christian mission church at Zuni Pueblo was dedicated to Guadalupe in 1699.

* And a photo of Silver City musicians Ken Keppeler and Jeanie McLerie holding violins whose backs reveal likenesses of the Virgin.

David Steinberg is a Journal arts writer and the book editor.

* Jacqueline Orsini Dunnington signs, discusses "Celebrating Guadalupe" at 2 p.m. Saturday, May 1, Page One, 11018 Montgomery NE; 1:30 -3:30 p.m. May 2, National Hispanic Cultural Center, 1701 Fourth SW; and 7 p.m. May 4, Bound to be Read, Far North Shopping Center, San Mateo at Academy NE.

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